Container ship, in a broad sense, refers to a ship that can be used to load international standard containers; in a narrow sense, it refers to a full-container ship with all cabins and decks dedicated to loading containers. Its freight capacity is usually expressed in terms of the container position of the 20-foot equivalent TEU.
The first container ship was converted from a cargo ship by the United States in 1957. Because of its high loading and unloading efficiency, the port stop time is greatly shortened, and the cargo damage during transportation and loading and unloading is reduced, so it has developed rapidly.
By the 1970s, container ships had matured. The shape and structure of container ships are distinctly different from those of general cargo ships. they have long and narrow shapes, single decks, flat upper decks, large cargo hatches, and their width can reach 70% to 80% of the ship’s width. The deck and cargo hatch cover are secured. The binding equipment is used to fix the containers loaded on the deck, and the fixed grid guides are installed inside the cargo hold to facilitate the loading and unloading of the containers and prevent the boxes from moving when the ship is swaying.
First, it can save loading and unloading labor and reduce transportation costs. Container ships use internationally unified containers to transport goods, breaking the traditional form of single-piece loading and unloading in one bundle and one package, greatly reducing the labor intensity of loading and unloading workers, speeding up loading and unloading, and reducing manual loading and unloading costs.
Second, the use of container ships for transportation can reduce the loss and loss of goods and ensure the quality of transportation.
Third, container ships have high loading and unloading efficiency. The loading and unloading speed of a container ship is about three times that of an ordinary cargo ship of the same tonnage, while the loading and unloading speed of a large high-speed container ship is almost 4-5 times that of an ordinary cargo ship of the same tonnage.
First, due to the limitation of cargo load, the flow of goods on the route is unbalanced, and often in some branch line transportation, there is the no-load return or a large reduction in the number of containers, which affects the economic benefits.
Second, restricted by inland transportation conditions, it is impossible to give full play to the “door-to-door” transportation advantages of container transportation.